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A few attempts to clarify some mysteries about flash and digital photography basics, hopefully helpful. A little of it is Nikon-specific, however almost all subjects are general, not affected by brand at all.

Menu of Photography Articles

Four Flash Fundamentals We Must Know

1. Inverse Square Law

Guide Numbers   (with calculator)

Bounce Flash, and TTL Flash Compensation

Camera Distance Does Not Affect Exposure

2. Continuous light vs. Instantaneous flash - vs. Shutter Speed

Maximum Shutter Sync Speed

Auto FP flash mode (HSS) - What is it?

3. What is Soft Light?

What Hot Shoe Flashes Do

4. Flash pictures are Double Exposures

Flash Outdoors - Fill Flash in Sunlight

Flash Indoors - Factors affecting TTL metering exposure

Rear Curtain Sync - for Blur from Ambient Motion Trails

Matching White Balance of Room Lights - with Colored Filters on Flash

The Essential Fundamentals About Digital Images

Pixels, Printers, Video - What's With That?   The Basic Fundamentals about Using images

Image Resize - Cropping, Resampling, Scaling   including Aspect Ratio

White Balance Correction   Click on White things

Why Should I Shoot Raw?   The easiest way to go

Related: Camera Differences in Raw and JPG

What are JPG losses?   JPG Artifacts


A Beginners Guide to Select a Hot Shoe Flash       Part 2, chart

Comparing Flash Power Level with Guide Number Ratings

Review of Yongnuo YN-565EX Speedlight   A less expensive alternative ($84, recommended)

Review of Aperlite YH-700N Speedlight   with HSS and Commander Master ($90)

Review of Neewer NW-985N Speedlight   Even less expensive ($63)

Review of Neewer VK750 II Speedlight   Less expensive yet ($54, recommended).

Nikon TTL BL with D-Lens Distance   Zoom lens distance accuracy is rather suspect

Third Party Flash Brands Bypass D-Lens Distance Problems   Accuracy of zoom lenses, and hot shoe cords

Speedlight AA Batteries

Comparisons of Optical Slave Triggers   (for the SB-600 too)

Speed of Flash Units for High Speed Photography

Nikon TTL history - TTL, D-TTL, iTTL


How Light Meters Work   (maybe not as assumed)

Details about Metering Principles (including TTL)

A Histogram is Not a Light Meter   Incident meters vs. Reflected meters

Do I need a handheld light meter?   Including Sekonic L308S

There are TWO types of Histograms   The single histogram is Poor

Histograms are Gamma Encoded   The numbers are probably not what you think


What Umbrellas Do

Mounting Speedlights in Umbrellas

Nikon CLS Commander Wireless Remote Flash System (AWL), also including Part 2:

Summary of Commander Pros and Cons
FV Lock to prevent subject Blinking
Unwanted light from Commander Trigger

Standard 45 Degree Portrait Lighting Setup

Which is Softer, Reflected or Shoot-through Umbrellas?

The Main Trick is to Learn to Actually "See" the Lighting

Comparing Properties of Speedlights vs Studio Lights

Methods to Trigger Flashes


Compute Field of View of camera lens and sensor

Compare EV difference of any Two Camera Exposures

Show Image Size and Data Size, for Various image formats

Printing and Scanning DPI calculator

Guide Number Calculator, including conversions, ISO or power level, etc

Calculate Power Difference of Two Flashes from Guide Numbers at same zoom

EV Difference of any two f/stop values

EV difference of two distances, Inverse Square Law

Convert Units, Bytes, KB, MB, GB, TB

Compute Image Dimensions from Megapixels and Aspect Ratio


Scanning Thousands of old Slides with a digital camera

f/stops and shutter speeds   Understanding numerical definitions, third, half, tenth stops

EV - Exposure Value   and Chart, plus the Sunny 16 Rule

FX vs DX Lens Crop Factor

Rant about Diffraction Limited Pixels   Really?

Memory Card Speed   How much do we need?

Camera Exif Data   Need a good Exif viewer?

Good Books on Flash Photography

Photo Editor Curve Tool   (and levels and contrast and brightness and inversion...)

Solenoid Valve for Water Drop photography

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Vote in a popularity survey of video screen resolutions  

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